Published 1987 .
Written in EnglishRead online
|The Physical Object|
|Number of Pages||205|
Download Plasma refining of molten steel.
The plasma furnace consists of a refractory lined steel vessel, which is water cooled in the roof and upper shell areas, and with either a graphite electrode or a water cooled plasma torch as the plasma device, which is inserted through the furnace roof. The molten bath forms the anode of the circuit and the plasma device acts as the cathode.
Plasma melting technology can be used for re-melting, refining and production of premium grade metal ingot. kW multi-torch plasma melting furnace is developed and commissioned by Laser & Plasma. In the VP-PAWB process, the adhesive would be decomposed and would form a lot of gases under the thermal effect of the plasma arc.
The gases stirred the molten pool metal, which hindered the growth of grains in the fusion zone and formed the columnar crystals. This was considered the reason for the refining of the grains in the fusion zone.
The refining effect of Ar/Ar–H 2 plasma arc melting (PAM) was investigated and the purity of Mo metals was evaluated by glow discharge mass spectrometry (GDMS). Most impurities in the Mo metals except for W were removed by Ar/Ar–H 2 PAM down to a few mass ppm levels, and the purities of respective Mo metals refined by Ar/Ar–20%H 2 PAM were improved up to 4N(%) Cited by: Abstract: Summary form only given: Hydrogen sulfide plasma dissociation is a promising method for H 2 S utilization.
The conventional method based on multi-stage Claus Process is currently considered the industry standard. The Claus Process is based on partial oxidation of H 2 S, which results in the production of sulfur and water.
Plasma dissociation of H 2 S follows direct dissociation path Cited by: 1. Plasma-facing components in the divertor region of future fusion devices will be subjected to very high heat loads from energetic (eV to keV) charged and neutral particle bombardment.
It is expected that the unmitigated steady-state heat flux could exceed material limits by a factor of ~10 in an ITER-like device. The production of steel in an EAF is a batch process.
Cycles, or "heats", range from about /2 to 5 hours to produce carbon steel and from 5 to 10 hours or more to Plasma refining of molten steel. book alloy steel. Scrap steel is charged to begin a cycle, and alloying agents and slag materials are added for refining.
Stages. of the steel and into the slag. In modern EAF operations, especially those operating with a "hot heel" of molten steel and slag retained from the prior heat, oxygen may be blown into the bath throughout most of the heat. As a result, some of the melting and refining operations occur simultaneously.
The melting is continuous, and molten metal may be allowed to flow continuously through an open tapping spout at the base of the cupola, or it may be tapped intermittently. Intermittent tapping is accomplished by piercing a clay bott, or plug, in the tapping spout with a pointed steel rod to create a passageway called the breast of the cupola.
steel product are in the proper proportion to produce the desired properties. The open-hearth, the basic oxygen, and the electric-arc pro cesses account for nearly all the steel tonnage produced in this coun try today. The open-hearth furnace was the nation's major source of steel untilwhen this role was assumed by the relatively new.
Metal identification 50 Unalloyed / low alloyed steel 55 Problem steels 62 Stainless steels 65 Cast iron 78 Plasma Cutting Current Distribution System AC/OX cutting, welding, brazing Gas Supplies and gas distribution system In this study, the kinetics of molten iron oxide reduction using hydrogen in molecular and plasma state are discussed.
HPSR has been established as an alternative to existing iron- and steel. atomizes the molten material and propels it toward the workpiece. Spray rates for materials such as stainless steel are in the range of to 9 kg/h (1 to 20 lb/h). Again, lower melting point materials such as zinc and tin alloys spray at much higher rates.
Substrate temperatures often range from. Grain refining is one of the methods used to prevent solidification cracking in weld metal, although it has never been achieved for high-speed laser welding of aluminum alloy without filler.
Here, we propose a short-pulsed, laser-induced, grain-refining method during continuous wave laser welding without filler. Free Online Library: Melting and pouring. (latest techniques and innovations in foundry processes and equipment, includes related articles) (Equipment Review '92) (Cover Story) by "Modern Casting"; Business Metals, metalworking and machinery Cupola furnaces Research Cupola-furnaces Foundries Equipment and supplies Metal molding Analysis Molding (Founding) Plasma arc melting.
Usual fusion welding process contains four phases such as solid, liquid, gas and plasma. Plasma is quite hot, maximum temperature exceK. The temperature of metal in solid phase to be joined is normally in room temperature.
The temperature of molten pool in the base metal is raised up more than melting point. Liquid Metal Procesing and Casting Nancy, France Semptember 21—24, Electroslag Refining of Titanium For the Removal of Nitrogen-Rich Inclusions A.D.
Ryabtsev a, A.A. Troyansky a, V.V. Pashynsky a, M.V. Samborsky a William T. Carter, Jr. b, Mark G. Benz b a Donetsk National Technical University, Ukraine. In this work, the removal of manganese from nickel melts by Ar and (10%, 20% and 40%) H2 plasma arc melting under various pressures (–, – and – MPa) was investigated experimentally.
The results show that only a slight reduction in the manganese content is obtained by Ar plasma arc melting (PAM). By contrast, the manganese content of liquid nickel decreases. Initially "electric steel" was a specialty product for such uses as machine tools and spring furnaces were also used to prepare calcium carbide for use in carbide Stassano electric furnace is an arc type furnace that usually rotates to mix the bath.
The Girod furnace is similar to the Héroult furnace. While EAFs were widely used in World War II for production of alloy. Before the charge is introduced the furnace is preheated with the plasma to a temperature of around °C.
The plasma itself runs from a plasma torch, which is a water cooled metallic device that uses electrical energy to ionise gas and create a plasma arc. A plasma arc is a very intense, flexible heat source with a high temperature capability. the molten metal to flow together. These range from simple steel brackets to nuclear reactors.
Welding, like any skilled trade, is broad in scope and you cannot become a welder simply by reading a. The formation of slag, which floats on the surface of the molten steel, is an important part of steelmaking.
Slag usually consists of metal oxides and acts as a destination for oxidized impurities. It functions as a thermal blanket, stopping excessive heat loss. "The effect of two refining slags (A: – CaO/Al2O3 ratio, 11–20 wt% SiO2; and B: – CaO/SiO2 ratio, 25–35 wt% Al2O3) on the inclusion morphology of a carbon structural steel (QB) was studied by controlling the balance between the steel and the refining slag at ºC in a Si–Mo resistance laboratory furnace.
D.C. Plasma Arc Recycler. Steel Refining. This furnace was developed as a cost effective alternative to AOD processing for the foundry industry. A kW D.C. plasma arc ladle furnace with 5 ton steel capacity was constructed and then commissioned in June, Several immediate benefits with this technology were realized.
Metallurgical fundamentals for vacuum refining of molten silicon and the behavior of different impurities in this process are studied. A novel mass transfer model for the removal of volatile impurities from silicon in vacuum induction refining is developed.
The boundary conditions for vacuum refining system—the equilibrium partial pressures of the dissolved elements and their actual partial. Precious metal ore recovery (Gold) The purpose of this section is to discuss the post ore refining process. The gold concentrate which is sorted into acid and basic gangues plus pyrite ores is put through a process of oxidation, sulfurization and smelting to remove metal oxides and impurities and produce a pure gold material.
In metallurgy, refining consists of purifying an impure metal. It is to be distinguished from other processes such as smelting and calcining in that those two involve a chemical change to the raw material, whereas in refining, the final material is usually identical chemically to the original one, only it is purer.
The processes used are of many types, including pyrometallurgical and. Melting and Refining Since it is imperative that the steel must be in the best state of 'cleanliness' when it leaves the furnace, increased attention is being focused on metal control during the furnace operation itself.
This essentially translates into greater application of basic arc melting to remove phosphorus and sulfur. Conceptual design. In the LINUS concept, plasma is injected into a molten lead-lithium liner.
The liner is then imploded mechanically, using high pressure helium pistons. The imploding liner acts to compress the magnetically-confined plasma adiabatically to fusion temperature and relatively high density (10 17 ions per cm 3).
In the subsequent expansion the plasma energy and the fusion energy. It is difficult for Al 2 O 3 TiO x to stably exist in the IF molten steel. It is the key to extend the holding time properly after Ruhrstahl Heraeus (RH) to ensure the removal of Al 2 O 3 inclusion.
With the increase of Mg content, the change path of MgAl 2 O 4 inclusion in IF steel. This paper describes (a) methods of using lower grade low-cost raw material in non-polluting electrical melting systems, such as DC electric arc furnace, plasma furnace, and induction furnace for the production of primary metal in the molten state; (b) the techniques of refining the molten metal outside the primary melting system, such as in.
However, in the presented plasma reactor there is no volume where the molten metal can be retained. The molten metal together with the slag flows out immediately after smelting, and sets in casts. That is why the metals have a very limited opportunity to mix and reduce, so they stay oxidized, i.e., %–7% of slag mass is Cu in the form of.
Titanium processing - Titanium processing - Extraction and refining: The production of titanium metal accounts for only 5 percent of annual titanium mineral consumption; the rest goes to the titanium pigment industry.
Pigments are produced using either a sulfate process or a more environmentally acceptable carbo-chlorination process (described below) that converts TiO2 into TiCl4. Here the “impurity” is the inherent oxide coat on the metal being worked and the purpose of the flux is to remove this oxide coat to expose a bare metal surface.
Molten metal (e.g. solder, or molten steel) wets the surface of bare metal much more effectively than it does an oxide coat, allowing for more intimate contact between the molten. Molten steel in a ladle may be treated (refined) in a device called Ladle Furnace (LF).
The ladle is transported to the Ladle Furnace stand where it is placed under a cover equipped with three graphite electrodes connected to a three-phase arc transformer. The ladle bottom has a porous refractory plug, which is connected to the argon supply pipe at the Ladle Furnace stand.
The most common method of metal powder production. An elemental feedstock is melted under an air or inert gas blanket, or under vacuum. The chamber is then backfilled with gas to force molten alloy through a nozzle where high-velocity air, N, He or Ar gas impinges onto the flowing melt and breaks it up.
The others end up, along with some iron oxides, in a slag which floats on the surface of the molten steel. In the open-hearth furnace oxidation is due to air at the surface of the molten metal. This method of steel refining was developed in the mid s, contemporaneous with the industrial revolution.
Basic Equations in Zone Refining. To analyze the impurities distribution in zone melting in a simple way, following variables are defined.
L = 1 ; Z = z / L molten zone; X is the normalized movement distance of the molten zone. Combustion Synthesis of Ceramic Preforms for Molten-Metal Infiltration (D. Halverson, et al.). Combustion Characteristics of Solid-Solid Systems: Experiments and Modeling (S. Kumar, et al.).
Microstructure of TiB 2 Sintered by the Self-Combustion Method (K. Urabe, et al.). It is found that less total oxygen, dissolved oxygen, inclusion quantity and smaller inclusion size could be obtained with a basicity of the refining slag between 3 and 4 and a C/A ratio between 7 and FactSage was used to study the influence of slag composition on dissolved oxygen in molten steel and Al 2 O 3 inclusion.
During the steelmaking process, while the molten steel is still in the ladle and before it is poured, the steel must be degassed in order to: (1) reduce/eliminate dissolved gases, especially hydrogen and nitrogen; (2) reduce dissolved carbon (to improve ductility); and (3) to promote preferential oxidation of dissolved carbon (over chromium) when refining stainless steel grades.
In the steel. g_axelsson wrote: The molten alloy was poured into water and made some quite spectacular cornflakes. Some of the pieces were gold colored so I suspected that I didn't get a good mix. Some of the pieces were gold colored so I suspected that I didn't get a good mix.metal compounds, ores, waste or scrap metal and for refining metal.
Included in this subclass are processes drawn to: the production of metal by smelting, roasting or furnace method; of wrought iron or steel, treatment in molten state of ferrous alloys C21C Manufacture of iron and steel C21B (plasma apparatus) H01J 37/